America's Corrupt JudiciaryOver the last 110 years, through political appointments, the supreme court, initially defending the constitution, as become the supreme political machine, projecting political persuasions by judicial fiat. This was necessary, to enable the politician to pander social issues at the federal level, thus joining the two pandering political machines as two sides of the same coin, as all three branches join to concentrate totalitarian socialistic fascism at the federal level, thereby enable the banksters and greedster to suck wealth from the American people through debt, and campaign contribute to the two pandering political machine, to sustain the corruption in perpetuity. Hence, modernly, American electioneering is all about pandering with sound bites and advertising, with, vote for me and I will give you the goodies, with, dont vote for the good of the country but only for the good of yourself, for sustaining politicians political power, and pandering totalitarian socialistic fascism in DC. The system has become utterly corrupt. The senate has never booted a justice or president out on the street, not once in 230 years, yet there are supposed checks and balances. Check and balances is a total farce, but dont tell the dreamy eyed kids the truth, as all three branches are now on the same totalitarian team, concentrating power in DC, bastardizing the constitution and the destroying the republic, as well as our real honest money, our honest price-discovery markets, and our manufacturing base, which use to be the only true engine of wealth creation, as now there is virtually none, but only wealth transfers, mostly through the FED, from the 99% to the top 1%.
A Living and Breathing Constitution, An Inherent FRAUD
Well, I went to law school, and got indoctrinated to the living and breathing constitution, you know, the one that changes to keep up with modern times, for the good of the people, or at least that was the selling point, and, Im sorry to say, bought into it. But, I was defrauded. I was not taught constitutional law, per the four corners, but rather, whatever anyone wanted to read into it, through judicial fiat and socialistic pandering. I want my law school tuition returned. I got cheated in law school.
The constitution is not a living and breathing instrument subject to the whims of the day, because it was chiseled in stone, with words of concrete meaning, an everlasting document of truths, to show us the way and gave us the light, that all men have inalienable rights, written for the ages to come, to guide us through the years and centuries to come, so that, we Americans wont lose our way. Modernly, we have abortions, fiat paper money, and plenary power of the government to do whatever its wants to do, in the days of want and its-all-about-me. It can now be anything anyone wants, if the people are pandered long enough to accept those modern interpretations, contrary to the plain language of the constitution.
The constitution, as envisioned, is not a living and breathing document, but now a dead document, buried in the trash heap of fail socialistic promises and decedent humanism. Modern interpretations are an evil, based upon years of humanistic socialistic pandering and directed by socialistic political propaganda. I was defrauded in law school. I WANT MY MONEY BACK.
Our founding fathers, with religious freedom, sound money, limited government, and inalienable rights knew allot, but we took the devils fork in the road, in 1913 with FED, which started the down hill slide, into the gutter of degraded AMERICA, now the land of the enslaved.
If our totalitarian government, including the legislating fiat judiciary is imposing gay marriages, the treasonous open southern border, and the enslaving congress with totalitarian controlling tax incentives and welfare indignity, do not start respecting the people will, American traditions, American freedoms, American heritage, American values, real honest money, balanced budgets, and the US and State constitutions, and do not stop their totalitarian enslaving ways, anarchy and revolt will necessarily follow. If the economy collapses based upon fiat money use, anarchy and revolt will necessarily follow. Totalitarianism has its consequences, and it dont look good. Armored tanks may be positioned on Pico and Figerora in LA, with signs, turn left or GET SHOT, reminiscent of Watts in 1964, but this time, it will be the a rainbow coalition of 100 million in revolt.
How did we get to this situation? It all started in the year of infamy, 1913, and the creation of the FED bank. In totalitarian china, they had their enslaving gang of four, and we have had our totalitarian gang of four, Wilson, FDR, LBJ, and BHO, bringing strife and anarchy now and possible future out right rebellion and revolt to a street corner near you.
In the main, the constitution prescribed a limited federal government, as the founding fathers, from their respective states, "their own countries", feared a TOTALITARIAN FASCIST CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT in DC denying the states their freedoms and innate sovereign rights. Federal power was not prescribed as plenary, which is made-up judicial code speak, for "totalitarian" as modernly practiced, but prescribed a limited federal government of enumerated powers. All powers not enumerated were reserved to the states, or so, it was suppose to be, by plain clear constitutional language.
The constitution prescribed silver coinage in weights and the only lawful tender in the country, because of the experience during the revolutionary war, where the government kept printing more and more Continental Notes, to such an extent, that they became worthless, and hence, the saying then was, "it ain't worth a continental. But in modern totalitarian socialistic fascist American, gold and silver coinage would in deed keep government honest, instead printing trillions and trillions of "Irredeemable Ponzi Coupon" facilitated by a private bank, the Federal reserve Bank, which issues federal reserve notes, the paper fiat dollar, which is IN FACT an irredeemable ponzi coupon, of which, more and more must printed to keep the federal socialistic ponzi scheme going, by kicking the can down the road, which ponzi scheme is the systematic fleecing of all holders of "federal reserve notes", through the resulting inflation, which robs the middle class and poor most of all, every day of their lives. A note is a contract to pay, which must be redeemed at some point. Redeem means to pay in constitutional money, the silver dollar. To make this point clear, you can not go into a federal reserve bank, and "redeem" your note. Use of the term "note" of the US paper dollar, is of course a fraud, perpetrated by government upon holders of these modern "continentals". The US Mint mints a silver coin, and on its face, it says ONE DOLLAR. The Federal Reserve Note, also uses the term "DOLLAR". A piece of paper and a bullion coin are two totally different things, yet both are called a "dollar", as clearly indicating, one is a fraud and the other is not. The judiciary, through its "interpretation" of the constitution have allowed soft-money Kensyians to rule with fiat and use fiat paper money, contrary to the constitution, to enslave us all.
The constitution PROHIBITS, by its simple language of enumerated power, any kind of social program AT THE FEDERAL level, such as Social Security, for example, which was not "enumerated", as those social service powers were reserved unto the many states. But the judiciary allowed the federal government to become TOTALITARIAN, Socialistic, and FASCIST by allowing the Federal Government to invade and pervade the social service area, to such an extent, that the country is now bankrupt, and now over 100 million American are dependents on some kind of federal assistance, the moral hazard.
There are of course many examples where the judiciary reserves unto itself the power SANCTION ANY LAW it wants, or MAKE UP any law it wants, through convenient interpretations, regardless of the plain language Constitution, and slowly but surely, the judiciary is used to perfect the pandering political purposes of more government and control over the people, contrary to the constitution, to perfect TOTALITARIAN SOCIALISTIC FASCISM, enslaving the people as either tax mules or dependents.
While the Legal Bars and political branches have joined in the judicial conspiracy to enslave us all surreptitiously, the origins of it are not hard to find, as the laws created, like the irredeemable ponzi coupon, are increasing at an ever exponential rate, until, as always what happens to any PONZI scheme, they implode under the weight of their own absurdity, such as tax-penalizing all productive acts, and hand-out-rewarding all unproductive acts, to where the American strength is destroyed.
The movement, or "progressiveness" of judicial-political liberalization was slow in its progress during the 19th century, but really took off, with WW's fiat paper money, income taxes, and the Federal Reserve Bank, to FDR's raw deal and confiscation of private gold coins to rob the people and saddle Americans with yet more taxes and dependent assistance, in social engineering, to LBJ's corrupt society feeding the moral hazards of reliance and dependency upon and enslavement by the Federal Government, to BHO's bankster socialism and even enforced health care, to where Wall Street's bad bets on their wild gambles are now effectively back-stopped by the American tax payer, under the "to-big-to-fail" doctrine, to where now, we are all effectively FORCED BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT to keep the 40 million dollar bonuses rolling into the bankster private hands, as they are just to big to fail.
And these totalitarian socialistic fascists will not ever stop, as they seek more and more control, such as the recent BHO proposal to outlaw the national debt limit, so that they can enslave us all even more with their unlimited spending that now renders 45 million of my countrymen as enslaved as food-stamp welfare dependents through the moral hazard forced upon us Americans.
One can expect members of that less than honorable profession, having a licensed monopoly to dispute resolution, to exhibit self-centered greed, such as turning federal malpractice claims into a federal court lotto game, or pandering politicians who seek to cement political power through pandering of "vote for me and I will give you the goodies", to enslave us all, but it was THE JUDICIARY that was suppose to protect us all from ourselves and from the over reaches of the Federal Government, and the judiciary has utterly failed to protect Americans from the excesses of the Federal Government, which was their primary role, and as such, the Judiciary's trashing of the constitution and our freedoms is the most dastardly of all public services.
It may be time to reconsider very public execution of murderers in the public square, following speedy trials and swift executions, to teach the people and particularly the children that there are real consequences to heinous crimes. Regular convulsive twitching executions, up front and in your face are not pleasant sights to behold, but that is the very reason why such should be reconsidered. Perhaps 13 dead this day, 9/16/2013 in the Washington Naval Yard could have been avoided. Its time to reconsider the building of state concentration camps to house heinous criminals for 20 year vacations at state expense, at the lawyer pecuniary gain, and reinstate murder as a social taboo.
As long as the legal community considers the US Constitution a living and breathing instrument, subject to plain language interpretations, which vests more political power in the judiciary, while concentrating more and more political power in DC, through plenary power enabling totalitarian rule, the republic be damned, and that all is not over thrown by supreme court and circuit court mass impeachment in the senate, there will be no law, and lawlessness will increase, through political pandering and undue influence.
The justices are not GODs, but are mere mortals subject to political appointments and political pandering. They are corrupt, feeding totalitarian enslavement of the people as tax mules and dependents. The US Constitution was etched in stone by revolutionary patriots, only to be defiled by 100 years of political pandering having its aggregate effects upon the political appointees of the Supreme Court and Circuits Courts. Americans should throw the black robe reapers out, and replace them with justices that will defend the Constitution! The US Constitution is a document of freedom for the people living in freedom from government, and not a living and breathing creature from the Soviet underworld.
Inherently vague language that can yield a legitimate legal argument for any desired conclusion. And believe me, the judiciary and lawyers really believe IN THEMSELVES serving the public good, the problem is that, its according to their belief system, and not the plain language, scope, spirit and purpose of the constitution, and they are smart to lay out the double dutch, and justify in their minds. They are not inherently evil in a sense they believe what they are doing is wrong, they believe in themselves and inject THAT into their rulings, and I believe that their belief system IS fashioned by the political rhetoric of the day, and after 110 years of leftist pandering, it has its accumulative affects, and we now have the consequences. I dont really believe that FDR was evil in proposing SS, just good intentions taking the paved road. But when you step back and look at the aggregate affects over 110 years, no rational person could not conclude that the constitution, setting forth a republic has been bastardized. No one. To many, that is just fine, to others, it causes them to preach REBELLION, the last voting booth available.
Gingrich wants federal judges impeached. I dont blame him. Gingrich as president can bully pulpit congress into IMPEACHING federal judges for unamerican and unconstitutional rulings, and its way over due. We Americans had a constitution of limited federal government, real money lawful tender, a republic of sovereign states, which protected our freedoms from the Federal Government, THAT THE FEDERAL BENCH has absolutely trashed over 110 years of leftist political pandering. ITS MUST STOP and Gingrich is the only one having the balls to call it like it is.
HIP HIP HURRAH!!! for NEWT! Let make this very clear. The federal judges, instead of upholding the constitution, have injected their political persuasions to such an extent that they not only have trashed the US constitution, but have violated their sworn oath, and ARE GUILTY OF HIGH CRIMES AND TREASON against THE PEOPLE. Hang em high!
O'Reilly on the factor hit a ball out of part, indicating that the Supreme Court has become a political body. Yours translated that many years ago as "Judicial Corruption" and Bill, my friend, here is the reason why, 110 years of totalitarian leftist pandering that has had its effects. Bill is one of the best thinkers out there, ratings suggest the same, actually, its just to bad he has to chop trees most of the time, for the nightly drama, to pay the bills, (pun intended), and gets distracted, for the guy has a excellent mind to get it all, comprehensively so.
"One can expect members of that most despicable profession, having a licensed monopoly to dispute resolution, to exhibit self-centered greed, such as turning federal malpractice claims into a federal court lotto game, or pandering politicians who seek to cement political power through pandering of "vote for me and I will give you the goodies", to enslave us all, but it was THE JUDICIARY that was suppose to protect us all from ourselves and from the over reaches of the Federal Government, and the judiciary has utterly failed to protect Americans from the excesses of the Federal Government, which was their primary role, and as such, the Judiciary's trashing of the constitution and our freedom is the most dastardly of all public services." Gingrich: Im FED UP!!!
Gingrich drops the bomb!! "I'm fed up with elitist judges" with "radically un-American" views. You are not the only who believes the JUDICIARY has sold us all out to Totalitarian Socialism, contrary to their sworn oaths to uphold the constitution and American traditions. Unlike the other bozos running for the Rep Nomination, Gingrich, as indicated earlier, possesses the intellect to understand the fundamental problems that have led to the demise of American exceptionalism, and our constitutional roots.
"One can expect members of that most despicable profession, having a licensed monopoly to dispute resolution, to exhibit self-centered greed, such as turning federal malpractice claims into a federal court lotto game, or pandering politicians who seek to cement political power through pandering of "vote for me and I will give you the goodies", to enslave us all, but it was THE JUDICIARY that was suppose to protect us all from ourselves and from the over reaches of the Federal Government, and the judiciary has utterly failed to protect Americans from the excesses of the Federal Government, which was their primary role, and as such, the Judiciary's trashing of the constitution and our freedom is the most dastardly of all public services."
A Muslim woman was denied a job at Abercrombie & Fitch over headscarf. If US Muslims in free speech actually marched in mass in protest to jidahist outrages, they would obtain a for sympathetic view. US Muslims, through silence, effectively at least appear to acquiesce to Muslim jihadist brutality and terror, and thats the rub. Head scarf per se is not really objectionable, its the symbolism and implied sponsorship for jihadist terror that causes strife. By wearing an exceedingly visible head scarf, its a calling card to join the Muslim faith, and with that, an appeal to Sharia law, terrorism, and conquer the world by the sword mentality. The wearing of a head scarf, for all its meanings, goes beyond mere religion, but also into politics, terror sponsorship, implied or in fact. In the end, the court may have ruled correctly, as a head scarf may not interfere with job function, but many would be customers are taken back. Wearing of a uniform at work is not an exercise of religion, but a display of faith and politics, and should have been up to the individual states to social engineer as the states deem fit, but the supreme court is bent on judicial fiat concentrating power in DC by legislating from the bench. Now, Abercrobie economic liberty has been limited and will just have to deal with it, with decrease revenues and while projecting symbols of terror, implicitly now sponsored.
Judicial Political Market Impeachment
The country is facing an Evil Empire which will result in time to either economic collapse, civil war, total anarchy or totalitarian Stalinism as the Evil Empire locks down the people while trashing founding fathers principals and the US Constitution. Changes to judiciary, political, and market makers or their methods, must be made at to very top levels of judicial, political and market positions so as to defeat the Evil Empire and restore inherent freedoms the people and protect the government from the collectivized totalitarianism of the Evil Empire. As President, I would eliminate the national debt, restore real and honest money, and restore the republic, and only during the the DMR Presidency as that is all that is sought to do the job necessary. The Presidential lock up would be impeached by a populace.
As President, I would consider asking the US Attorney General to submit for approval Judicial Indictment Bills directed to the Senate charging Supreme Court Judges and Circuit Court Judges with high crimes for failing to comply with their oaths of office through gross interpretations of the US Constitution minimally contrary to the spirit of the Constitution. The Senate would, of course, be the trier of fact in all such Judicial Indictment Bills against Supreme Court Judges and Circuit Court Judges for violating their oaths of office. Appointing any person to be a Federal Judge to sit on the federal bench based mostly upon political party orientation is major clue for those who do not understand what is totalitarianism or what is the Evil Empire. A district court judge who opinions has defended the US Constitution would be swapped with a circuit court judge or a supreme court judge, and thus the circuit court judges and supreme court judges can either resign and reappointed at the district level, or face impeachment, which is found by the senate would have in the indictment the swapped appointments so the the senate impeachment would both be a impeachment and an appointed for district judges for circuit and supreme court judges. .
Impeached Judges who are not mere political appointments, but real hard working jurists of long standing would then be reappointed to the federal district courts, so as to not waste valuable legal talents, while replacing any impeached judge with those willing to fully honor their oaths to defend the US Constitution, thereby providing necessary negative feedback at the highest level of the Judicial Branch so as to end the current open loop judicial fiat interpretations that are contrary to oaths to defend the US Constitution. A request to resign circuit and supreme court judges would be with an offer to a political appointment within the administration before the filing of indictments with the senate. District judges are confined by legal precedence of the Circuit Courts and the Supreme Courts and would fall in line with Circuit Courts and Supreme Court decisions as lower ranking courts, which district court judges are in effect Jurist Administers of the legal hierarchy complex, and thus there would be no need to indict any district court judge. Impeached political orientation appointments to the Supreme Court or Circuit Courts would be found a place in the DMR Administration which shall be party neutral so as not to waste good government talent. The DMR Administration does not seek to destroy any political party or political movement, but rather focus them all at the correct state or federal level for expressing their political orientations in the context of a republic of states headed by a federal government.
As President, I would ask the US Attorney General to bring cases against the Wall Street Banksters and Greedsters to change their methods of operations. All persons of any political, judicial and Market persuasion shall not be deemed to be inherently evil by the DMR Administration, for they do believe that what they are doing is right and moral, but cumulatively misdirected resulting in the Evil Empire. It is that accumulative misdirectedness that is the heart of the collectivized Evil Empire that pervades governmental functions, politics, judicial benches, and market forces. The Wall Street Banksters and Greedsters are generally playing by the rules, which allow, generally, Mala en Se profiteering, market rigings, and undue influences. They play by the written rules and they believe they are doing good work. They all are not evil per se.
It is the accumulative affects of the Banksters and Greedsters in the markets playing by the rules, interpreting judges violating their oaths in good faith, and self-centered political parties collectively upon government functions that results in and expands day by day, totalitarian rule, which is the Evil Empire. Thus, the DMR Administration will seek changes at top level of political, judicial, and market positions, so as to change the nature of those functions only to such an extent to defeat the Evil Empire, so as to represent all the people, in view of founding father principals and the US Constitution.
Criminal Justice Revamping
The criminal justice system creates concentration camps distributed throughout. Some criminal have not assets, some do. The so called $10,000 punishment for multimillionaires rigging the financial markets is of course not effective. Criminal sanctions of fines for big banksters and greedsters is now a days just consider an expense of doing business. The criminal penalties need to revamped so that options are available that are significant deterrents to violating federal law. In the context of banksters and greedsters, seizures of assets and break up of them are in order. Punishment for person drug use crimes should be lessened to fit the crime, but manufacture and smuggling punishment should be directed to forfeitures and seizures. The concept of providing non-violent criminals years of vacation time in concentration camps needs to be rethought. Capital punishment for repeat violent criminals need to be rethought. Capital punishment for murderer and heinous crimes needs to be rethought. The concept of feeding the legal community endless fees during the life time of an incarcerated felon needs to be rethought. The concept of incarcerating illegal aliens needs to be rethought. By and large, the state just can not afford endless appeals, long incarcerations of non-violent criminals, and long duration vacations for so many heinous criminals. Cost effective solutions are needed in a complete revamping of the federal penalties for committing federal crimes.
Violence will Escalate
The supreme court is directly responsible for increase violence and strife across the country, by injecting political opinion into judicial opinion, usurping states rights reserved under the constitution. Violence in the US will continue to escalate as the DHS procure billions of round of ammunition and armor vehicles to match the growing violence, as the US army conduct marshal law war games for seizing US cities if need be. But Why? The answer lies in the inability of congress to resolve issues by political lock up.
The American people have been had by RNC and DNC pandering the nanny state to buy votes, the blacks have been pandered by black political leaders to keep the black voting block in place for their political power. Now Black Lives Matter, and trigger happy COPs cross the line. Black political leaders rascistly teach blacks into thinking its the white race, the rebel flag, the work place is all full of discrimination, not that there is none of the that, but not addressing the dominate affect, and that is the disintegration of the moral family unit. At the beginning of the 20th century, moral black families were alive and dominate, even if poor and under discrimination. So what changed? The DNC and RNC pander race is on, with the DNC out in front. Poverty drives the problem as proverty grips the nation.
Pandered Latinos are told come to the US for nanny state goodies and illegally squat on foreign lands producing sanctuary cities and a second class of peoples to sustain leftist political party power at the federal level. Latinos are pandered into believing that they are entitled to US sanctuaries and support for merely criminally violating US immigration laws, so as to keep the latino voting block secured for sustaining political power by those who can pander the latino voting block the most. The DNC and RNC panderbate race is on, with the DNC out in front.
Minutemen armed themselves and post guards on the southern border, with intent to shoot to kill to stop the invading hoards. The Federal Government, locked up by those vying for political power, do nothing, such that US Citizens take matters into their own hands, as the states can not even defend themselves under Federal Totalitarian Plenary Power. The Republic is dead. Many are harassed by the IRS and held up for tax evasion by spying IRS agents. One guy actually slammed his plane into an IRS building, apparently unwilling to be a tax mule enslaved by the Federal Government. Mountain recluses, trying to find freedom, snipe federal agents in a vengeful death hunt, as others blow up federal building in contempt, as Federal law invades every aspect of life.
Churches and their symbols are desecrated by non-believers, running open loop with no respect of others or tolerance, as the totalitarians preach false moral codes to pay taxes to sustain the totalitarian lock down of the people, as false religious prophets enter the political arena confusing religious teachings with political party power lock down.
The Presidency is captured by a totalitarian socialistic fascist racist sending IRS thugs after political enemies to sustain political party power. The MSM is biased with smear merchants, hatchetmen, gotcha pundits and political snipes to maintain socialistic totalitarian political party power concentration in DC. Abortion clinics are bombed as abortion doctors barbarically drill holes into new born baby heads while taking their first breath. Its murder wholesale, encouraged by the Federal Government, with rights to life and rights to choice, in perpetual conflict, as the political powers vye for votes, as the supreme court extents equal protection to preferences of any sheep herders doing their thing.
Occupiers march on wall street, vandalizing buildings, as Banksters and Greedsters rig markets with impunity, contributing to political parties to keep the free ZIRP money flowing for manipulating any market, or committing any financial fraud with impunity, while the political parties enslave 99% as tax mules and state dependents, while enslaving their children and grandchildren with national debt and fiscal deficits as far as the eye can see.
NSA personnel leak information committing treason as intelligence scandals on spying federal agents because the senate, vying for political power, is to busy buying nanny granny state votes rather than working with the president on prescribed presidential authority, which US president is out golfing while the national falls into ruination. Monetarists and NRA members arm themselves in defense of freedom for the people from the totalitarians in DC using falsely, crime and hunting rationales to disarm the public to maintain totalitarian control over the people in the land of the free. Drug Addiction is soaring. Heroin use in the US is soaring, and with that will come more violence from lost and hopeless people needing real change, instead of being enslaved as tax mules and state dependents.
Violence now permeates our society. But why? Because the Republic is dead, because the money is a con, because the two major political parties have locked up the voting booth to selfishly sustain their own power, because the high court runs open loop in self serving judicial fiat pandered by the politicians trying to pander votes, because those in government are totalitarians seeking to control people to lock up the people and enforce totalitarian political control. The violence will increase and the economic implosion will only get worse. The DEMs and REPs had their chance, and 110 years of failed totalitarian concentration of power in DC is long enough. Its time for a real change. Hope is not required, just the vote, to capture the presidency, and with that, change wll occur back to restoring the constitution, republic, real money, honest markets, world peace and domestic prosperity.
In Utah these days, suicides exceed auto accident deaths. UTAH suicide rate, an epidemic, Greece anyone? This another excuse on the assault on 2nd amendment, and of course, the freedom to take one's own life. 2nd amendment has nothing to do with hunting, or suicides, of course, but freedom from government. Most dont condone any taking their own life, in despair, or just old age, but, Im sure, they are not asking for our permission, exercising personal liberty, voting with their guns, against the DC totalitarian enslavement, the purpose behind the 2nd amendment. Some may just give up, in hopeless despair, and prefer oblivion over enslavement, exercising their right to bear arms.
The suicide rate in the concentration camps was extraordinarily high, Lester D. Psychology Program, The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Pomona 08240-0195, USA. email@example.com
Previous reports, based on limited reports from inmates who survived the Nazi concentration camps, have claimed that suicide was rare in the concentration camps. Using slightly more detailed, but nonetheless still limited, data from survivors of the camps, it is estimated that the suicide rates in the camp were most likely 25,000 per 100,000 per year or higher and, therefore, enormous!
Constitution of the United States
Preamble: We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
U.S. Constitution : Article I
Section 1 - Legislative powers; in whom vested
All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
Section 2 - House of Representatives, how and by whom chosen
Qualifications of a Representative. Representatives and direct taxes, how apportioned. Enumeration. Vacancies to be filled. Power of choosing officers, and of impeachment.
1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the elector in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.
2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons.(The previous sentence was superseded by Amendment XIV). The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
Section 3 - Senators, how and by whom chosen. How classified. State Executive, when to make temporary appointments, in case, etc. Qualifications of a Senator. President of the Senate, his right to vote. President pro tem., and other officers of the Senate, how chosen. Power to try impeachments. When President is tried, Chief Justice to preside. Sentence.
1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, (chosen by the Legislature thereof,) (The preceding five words were superseded by Amendment XVII) for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.
5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of the President of the United States.
6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
7. Judgement in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgement and punishment, according to law.
Section 4 - Times, etc., of holding elections, how prescribed. One session in each year.
1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.
2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December,(The preceeding seven words were superseded by Amendment XX) unless they by law appoint a different day.
Section 5 - Membership, Quorum, Adjournments, Rules, Power to punish or expel. Journal. Time of adjournments, how limited, etc.
1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.
2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.
3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgement require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
Section 6 - Compensation, Privileges, Disqualification in certain cases.
1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.
2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.
Section 7 - House to originate all revenue bills. Veto. Bill may be passed by two-thirds of each House, notwithstanding, etc. Bill, not returned in ten days to become a law. Provisions as to orders, concurrent resolutions, etc.
1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.
2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration, two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.
3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
Section 8 - Powers of Congress
The Congress shall have the power
1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States:
2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States:
3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states,and with the Indian tribes:
4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States:
5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures:
6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States:
7. To establish post-offices and post-roads:
8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries:
9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court:
10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations:
11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water:
12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years:
13. To provide and maintain a navy:
14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces:
15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions:
16. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress:
17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings: And,
18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.
Section 9 - Provision as to migration or importation of certain persons. Habeas Corpus , Bills of attainder, etc. Taxes, how apportioned. No export duty. No commercial preference. Money, how drawn from Treasury, etc. No titular nobility. Officers not to receive presents, etc.
1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year 1808, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importations, not exceeding 10 dollars for each person.
2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.
4. No capitation, or other direct tax shall be laid unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. (Modified by Amendement XVI)
5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.
6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.
7. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.
8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no person holding any office or profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
Section 10 - States prohibited from the exercise of certain powers.
1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
2. No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.
3. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in a war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
U.S. Constitution : Article II
Section 1- President: his term of office. Electors of President; number and how appointed. Electors to vote on same day. Qualification of President. On whom his duties devolve in case of his removal, death, etc. President's compensation. His oath of office.
1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold office during the term of four years, and together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:
2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. [The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.](The clause in  was superseded by Amendment XII)
3. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.
4. No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.
5 . In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. (This clause has been modified by Amendment XX and Amendment XXV)
6. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.
7. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of the President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
Section 2 - President to be Commander-in-Chief. He may require opinions of cabinet officers, etc., may pardon. Treaty-making power. Nomination of certain officers. When President may fill vacancies.
1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.
2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.
3. The President shall have the power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next session.
Section 3 - President shall communicate to Congress. He may convene and adjourn Congress, in case of disagreement, etc. Shall receive ambassadors, execute laws, and commission officers.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he may receive ambassadors, and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.
Section 4 - All civil offices forfeited for certain crimes.
The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
U.S. Constitution : Article III
Section 1 - Judicial powers. Tenure. Compensation.
The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.
Section 2 - Judicial power; to what cases it extends. Original jurisdiction of Supreme Court Appellate. Trial by Jury, etc. Trial, where
1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and Citizens of another state, between Citizens of different states, between Citizens of the same state, claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign states, Citizens or subjects. (This section modified by Amendment XI)
2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before-mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.
3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.
Section 3 - Treason defined. Proof of. Punishment of.
1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.
U.S. Constitution : Article IV
Section 1 - Each State to give credit to the public acts, etc. of every other State.
Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
Section 2 - Privileges of Citizens of each State. Fugitives from Justice to be delivered up. Persons held to service having escaped, to be delivered up.
1. The Citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of Citizens in the several states.
2. A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.
3. No person held to service or labour in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labour, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labour may be due.(This clause superseded by Amendment XIII)
Section 3 - Admission of new States. Power of Congress over territory and other property.
1. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state, nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned, as well as of the Congress.
2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.
Section 4 - Republican form of government guaranteed. Each State to be protected.
The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union, a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.
U.S. Constitution : Article V
Constitution: how amended; proviso.
The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which , in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress: Provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year 1808, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.
U.S. Constitution - Article VI
Certain debts, ect. declared valid, Supremacy of Constitution, treaties, and laws of the United States, Oath to support Constitution, by whom taken. No religious test.
1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this constitution, as under the confederation.
2. This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.
3. The senators and representatives before-mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
U.S. Constitution : Article VII
What ratification shall establish constitution.
The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
Constitution of the United States : Bill of Rights
AMENDMENT I - Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion and Petition
AMENDMENT II - Right to keep and bear arms
AMENDMENT III - Conditions for quarters of soldiers
AMENDMENT IV - Right of search and seizure regulated
AMENDMENT V - Provisons concerning prosecution
AMENDMENT VI - Right to a speedy trial, witnesses, etc.
AMENDMENT VII - Right to a trial by jury
AMENDMENT VIII - Excessive bail, cruel punishment
AMENDMENT IX - Rule of construction of Constitution
AMENDMENT X - Rights of the States under Constitution
AMENDMENT I - Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion and Petition
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
AMENDMENT II - Right to keep and bear arms
A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
AMENDMENT III - Conditions for quarters of soldiers
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
AMENDMENT IV - Right of search and seizure regulated
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
AMENDMENT V - Provisons concerning prosecution
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
AMENDMENT VI - Right to a speedy trial, witnesses, etc.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
AMENDMENT VII - Right to a trial by jury
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
AMENDMENT VIII - Excessive bail, cruel punishment
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
AMENDMENT IX - Rule of construction of Constitution
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
AMENDMENT X - Rights of the States under Constitution
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
AMENDMENT XI - Judicial Powers Construed
Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795.
The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.
AMENDMENT XII - Manner of Choosing a President and Vice-President
This Amendment altered Article 2 Section 1 Part 2
Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified July 27, 1804.
1. The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; - The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.(The words in italics were superseded by Amendment XX)
3. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such numbers be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.
AMENDMENT XIII - Slavery Abolished
Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865.
1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XIV - Citizen rights not to be abridged
Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868
1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
5. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
AMENDMENT XV - Race no bar to voting rights
Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870.
1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XVI - Income taxes authorized
Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913.
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever sources derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
AMENDMENT XVII - U.S. Senators to be elected by direct popular vote
Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913.
1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures.
2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Legislature of any State may empower the Executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the Legislature may direct.
3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.
AMENDMENT XVIII - Liquor Prohibition
Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919.
Altered by Amendment XXI
1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
AMENDMENT XIX - Giving nationwide suffrage to women
Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920.
1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XX - Terms of the President and Vice-President
This Amendment altered Article 1 Section 4 Part 2 and Article 2 Section 1 Part5
Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933
1. The terms of the President and the Vice-President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.
2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice-President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice-President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice-President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice-President shall have qualified.
4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice-President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.
5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article (October 1933).
6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.
AMENDMENT XXI - Repeal of Amendment XVIII
Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933.
1. The Eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
AMENDMENT XXII - Limiting presidential terms of office
Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951.
1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more that two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once.
2. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.
3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.
AMENDMENT XXIII - Presidential vote for the District of Columbia
Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961.
1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Congress may direct:
2. A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.
3. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XXIV - Barring poll tax in federal elections
This Amendment altered Article 1 Section 2 Part 3
Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23,1964.
1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or any other tax.
2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XXV - Presidential disability and succession
This Amendment altered Article 2 Section 1 Part 5
Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967.
1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take the office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both houses of Congress
3. Whenever the President transmits to the President Pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmits to the President Pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
5. Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President Pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmits within four days to the President Pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.
AMENDMENT XXVI - Lowering the voting age to 18 years
This Amendment altered Article 1 Section 9 Part 4
Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified June 30, 1971.
The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
AMENDMENT XXVII - Congressional Pay
This Amendment altered Article 1 Section 3 Part 1 and Article 1 Section 3 Part 2
Passed by Congress September 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992.
No law, varying the compensation for services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.